On September 11, 1895, South Carolina began the process of rewriting the state constitution with the express purpose of disenfranchising the state’s African-American voters and restoring white supremacy in all matters political. The convention’s most prominent figure was Benjamin Tillman, affectionately nicknamed “Pitchfork Ben,” a former governor and then-Senator from the state. A renowned orator, Tillman spoke at great length during the convention; excerpts of one such speech are below:
A continuation of the existing conditions and perpetuation of fraud, or fraudulent methods; and the sword of Damocles suspended over our heads by a single hair swings, and swings, and swings; and all that is necessary to bring about chaos is for a sufficient number of white men, actuated by hate, or ambition, or from any unpatriotic motive, to climb up and cut it loose, mobilize and register the negroes, lead them and give them a free vote and fair count under manhood suffrage…The poor, ignorant cotton field hand, who never reaped any advantage, nor saw anything except a pistol, blindly followed like sheep wherever their black and white leaders told them to go, voted unanimously every time for the Republican ticket during that dark period, and these results were achieved solely and wholly by reason of the ballot being in the hands of such cattle. Is the danger gone ? No. How did we recover our liberty ? By fraud and violence…How did we bring it about ? Every white man sunk his personal feelings and ambitions. The white people of the State, illustrating our glorious motto, “Ready with their lives and fortunes.” came together as one. By fraud and violence, if you please, we threw it off. In 1878 we had to resort to more fraud and violence, and so again in 1880. Then the Registration Law and eight-box system was evolved from the superior intelligence of the white man to check and control this surging, muddy stream of ignorance…
A statue of Tillman stands in front of the South Carolina State House to this day, and his name adorns a number of buildings throughout the state, including the main building on the campus of Clemson University.
“The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) is proud to present A History of Racial Injustice – 2018 Calendar. America’s history of racial inequality continues to undermine fair treatment, equal justice, and opportunity for many Americans. The genocide of Native people, the legacy of slavery and racial terror, and the legally supported abuse of racial minorities are not well understood. EJI believes that a deeper engagement with our nation’s history of racial injustice is important to addressing present-day questions of social justice and equality.